[Read] ➺ Politics ➶ Aristotle – Rvtrek.info

This is quite a turn away from the optimistic we can figure it all out tone of the Nicomachean Ethics In trying to confront both what a state is and how it functions, he creates this weird insidious master slave hierarchy, expanding it to encompass children, women, basically anyone who isn t a member of the Athenian aristocracy While this in and of itself isn t really shocking considering how the typical greek polis maintained and grew it s own power i.e going to war, stealing women, land This is quite a turn away from the optimistic we can figure it all out tone of the Nicomachean Ethics In trying to confront both what a state is and how it functions, he creates this weird insidious master slave hierarchy, expanding it to encompass children, women, basically anyone who isn t a member of the Athenian aristocracy While this in and of itself isn t really shocking considering how the typical greek polis maintained and grew it s own power i.e going to war, stealing women, land and gold etc his inability to fully justify this kind of hierarchy without resorting to some knee jerk idea of a natural order is a huge problem Slavery and gender inequality are ultimately mandated and reinforced because, well, basically because he says so Which is a real cop out compared to the tight, forward reasoning in a lot of his other works At the same time, he s one of the first thinkers to recognize that for how fucked up and oppressive a state can be towards its members, it gets evenso when issues of money and finance take over and dominate to the point where the only questions that are taken seriously are those pertaining to makingdough It s a deeply flawed book about a deeply flawed, though inescapable topic Come on Aristotle You really wrote a lame book man I m gonna have to go read Plato s Republic to shake the funk out I mean hey, I know you re supposed to be one of the world s greatest thinkers and you were the founder of formal logic and all But dude, your ethics suck What the jazz are you talking about in this book about how everyone needs to be ruled, and those who lack the rationality to rule themselves need to be ruled by others I mean, I guess that ends up happening to people who lac Come on Aristotle You really wrote a lame book man I m gonna have to go read Plato s Republic to shake the funk out I mean hey, I know you re supposed to be one of the world s greatest thinkers and you were the founder of formal logic and all But dude, your ethics suck What the jazz are you talking about in this book about how everyone needs to be ruled, and those who lack the rationality to rule themselves need to be ruled by others I mean, I guess that ends up happening to people who lack rationality as they blindly follow groups like the Republican Tea Party and the propaganda of the corporate controlled media But NOT COOL.Slavery bad Sadly, it appears that your words were prophetic as most of us have become wage slaves And I m not sure about the city beingimportant than family which in turn isimportant than the individual Tottle talks about politics beinglike an organism instead of a machine and that it s a collection of parts where none can exist without the others Aristotle said the city polis is not just about laws and economic stability, but it s about pursuing the good and noble life He stated the goal was to perform noble acts The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together This is different from Thomas Hobbes, for example, who said there was a social contract where individuals leave the state of nature because of fear of violent death Aristotle, I think you ve inspired me to go read somethingfun An interesting treatise, but I can see why only those interested in political theory return to it. In Politics, Aristotle theorized that in a perfect world, a monarchy would be a benevolent dictatorship, an aristocracy would be rule by the virtuous and democracy would be rule by the people But because of human frailty, monarchy actually becomes tyranny, aristocracy actually becomes oligarchy and pure democracy actually becomes mob rule The practical solution is a form of government that mixes elements of a single ruler, rule by the few and majority rule.This idea survived and evolved, and e In Politics, Aristotle theorized that in a perfect world, a monarchy would be a benevolent dictatorship, an aristocracy would be rule by the virtuous and democracy would be rule by the people But because of human frailty, monarchy actually becomes tyranny, aristocracy actually becomes oligarchy and pure democracy actually becomes mob rule The practical solution is a form of government that mixes elements of a single ruler, rule by the few and majority rule.This idea survived and evolved, and eventually the English developed a system of government with a monarch, a House of Lords and a House of Commons Later, a system of government was created in the United States with a separation of powers among a President, a Senate and a House of Representatives.How amazing that Aristotle wrote a book so long ago that has had such influence on world history right up to the present day What Is The Relationship Of The Individual To The State What Is The Ideal State, And How Can It Bring About The Most Desirable Life For Its Citizens What Sort Of Education Should It Provide What Is The Purpose Of Amassing Wealth These Are Some Of The Questions Aristotle Attempts To Answer In One Of The Most Intellectually Stimulating WorksBoth Heavily Influenced By And Critical Of Plato S Republic And Laws, Politics Represents The Distillation Of A Lifetime Of Thought And Observation Encyclopaedic Knowledge Has Never, Before Or Since, Gone Hand In Hand With A Logic So Masculine Or With Speculation So Profound, Says H W C Davis In His Introduction Students, Teachers, And Scholars Will Welcome This Inexpensive New Edition Of The Benjamin Jowett Translation, As Will All Readers Interested In Greek Thought, Political Theory, And Depictions Of The Ideal State I can t give a rating to Aristotle s Politics.That being said, Aristotle s political philosophy runs on a horrendously fallacious naturalistic track, leading him to bizarre conclusions abouteverything.It was perhaps useful as a way of solidifying my conceptions of the wheelings and dealings of classical era poleis, especially having read this alongside Thucydides, where the abstract, nuanced comparisons Aristotle makes between direct democracy and oligarchy find grounding in the brutality of I can t give a rating to Aristotle s Politics.That being said, Aristotle s political philosophy runs on a horrendously fallacious naturalistic track, leading him to bizarre conclusions abouteverything.It was perhaps useful as a way of solidifying my conceptions of the wheelings and dealings of classical era poleis, especially having read this alongside Thucydides, where the abstract, nuanced comparisons Aristotle makes between direct democracy and oligarchy find grounding in the brutality of the Peloponnesian War Os especialistas e entendidos no assunto dizem que Arist teles uma das figuras intelectuais mais importantes de todos os tempos que ele , juntamente com Plat o, um dos fundadores da raz o ocidental.Dizem os especialistas tamb m que a Pol tica , do mesmo Arist teles, um dos livros mais importantes j escritos, um dos textos seminais da reflex o pol tica.Mas, olhando ao nosso redor, n s, homens do s culo XXI, vemos que nossa realidade, nosso mundo, muito diferente daquele dum grego que v Os especialistas e entendidos no assunto dizem que Arist teles uma das figuras intelectuais mais importantes de todos os tempos que ele , juntamente com Plat o, um dos fundadores da raz o ocidental.Dizem os especialistas tamb m que a Pol tica , do mesmo Arist teles, um dos livros mais importantes j escritos, um dos textos seminais da reflex o pol tica.Mas, olhando ao nosso redor, n s, homens do s culo XXI, vemos que nossa realidade, nosso mundo, muito diferente daquele dum grego que viveu no s culo IV a.C Temos estados na es, megal poles, viagens intercontinentais, bombas at micas, conflitos multi tnicos, comunica o em tempo real, voto eletr nico, f bricas e ind strias, bolsa de mercadorias e futuros, em suma, nosso mundo muito mais complexo e intrincado do que o das pequeninas cidades estado do tempo de Arist teles.De que modo, ent o, a sua Pol tica pode nos dizer algo de valor ainda hoje De que modo a sua leitura n o ser apenas um fetiche de antiqu rios Pois bem, a leitura direta do texto, sem atravessadores e intermedi rios, joga no ch o, sem d nem piedade, todas as nossas expectativas, todas as nossas tolas ilus es.Sim, verdade, Arist teles viveu muito tempo atr s e n o conheceu o facebook, nem o whatsapp mas ele conheceu algo mais importante, mais fundamental ele conheceu a natureza humana e, a partir dela, a natureza das associa es formadas pelos homens realmente de fazer cair o queixo se dar conta de que as descri es de Arist teles respeito do comportamento dos homens, seus sentimentos, seus instintos, seus preconceitos, v cios e virtudes, se aplicam, com pequenos ajustes, aos homens do nosso tempo.Mais do que isso as descri es dos v rios tipos de regimes pol ticos, da natureza da cidadania, das causas e origens das revoltas e crises sociais, dos motivos que contribuem para a preserva o das comunidades pol ticas s o absolutamente matadoras, servindo, sem maiores dificuldades, para descrever tamb m fen menos pol ticos e sociais que est o ocorrendo agora, neste exato momento, em pleno s culo XXI.O que Arist teles fez, do ponto de vista intelectual, simplesmente monstruoso nada mais do que criar, a partir de observa es e an lises duma precis o a toda prova, um ferramental que permite o diagn stico de praticamente qualquer ajuntamento de homens neste mund o de Deus.Mas, cuidado N o pense que Arist teles como os nossos professores de filosofia ou cientistas sociais de hoje em dia Nada mais errado do que ter essa imagem na cabe a Arist teles um fil sofo em sentido pleno e dos de mais grosso calibre Isso significa que ele simplesmente n o est preocupado com os teus sentimentos, com as tuas id ias preconcebidas, com as tuas opini es, com a tua id ia de um mundo melhor poss vel Ele est pouco se lixando para essas babaquices p s modernas O que interessa ao Fil sofo e na Idade M dia Arist teles era o fil sofo por antonom sia o conhecimento da realidade das coisas, e, no caso espec fico da Pol tica , o conhecimento da realidade da vida em sociedade.Portanto, n o espere utopias, planos mirabolantes de reforma social, diatribes contra os ricos e coisas desse tipo que s o produzidas, todos dias, de maneira incessante, pelas nossas madra as intelectuais s quais damos o nome pomposo de universidades.Arist teles delineia verdade uma cidade ideal, uma organiza o pol tica ideal Mas isso no mesmo esp rito em que Plat o a fez n o como um plano a ser implementado na pr tica, mas como uma r gua de medida, um crit rio que permitisse a compara o com as sociedades atualmente existentes.Arist teles , no sentido estrito da express o, um cientista, um pesquisador, um intelectual Isso significa que para ele o importante diferentemente do que para Marx, por exemplo compreender o mundo, entender a realidade, e n o transform la.O realismo do homem t o brutal, t o sem meias palavras, que ele reconhece e n o tem vergonha nenhuma de dizer que a vida neste mundo sublunar, nesta verdadeira caverna plat nica, para usar a express o de Eric Voegelin miserable enough Diante disso, o m ximo que se pode almejar, de maneira realista, que as sociedades, mal ajambradas e claudicantes todas elas, sejam minimamente est veis, n o sofrendo com revolu es e crises intestinas o tempo todo.N o que Arist teles seja um brutamontes intelectual, de jeito nenhum Apenas ele n o tem interesse a n o ser na realidade efetiva das coisas, naquilo que se passa, de fato, na vida dos homens e das sociedades E se, para desencavar a verdade e traz la luz do dia, ele tiver de demolir as id ias e opini es alheias, pode ter certeza, irm o ele o far Nem as opini es de Plat o foram poupadas do exame severo desse erudito de integridade intelectual inabal vel.Mas volto a dizer essa severidade n o implica insensibilidade, muito pelo contr rio Arist teles duma sensibilidade nas suas observa es, dum bom senso nas suas an lises e opini es, que quase imposs vel falo por experi ncia pr pria n o se ver a todo o tempo concordando com as pondera es desse grande mestre de vida que ele.Sim, diferentemente do que muitos pensam, especialmente na academia, o Fil sofo ainda tem muito muito mesmo a nos dizer Suas obras n o s o pe as de museu, mas sim o testemunho vivo, marcante, duma intelig ncia poderosa, duma capacidade de observa o e an lise mpares, duma honestidade intelectual inquebrant vel, que continuar a iluminar e a ensinar todos aqueles que se dispuserem a fazer parte do seleto grupo de seus disc pulos e ouvintes Man is a political animal The perfect springboard for Aristotle s political tome The book is largely divided, though not perfectly sectioned off, into sections concerning his political philosophy and analysis His philosophy was a little difficult to ascertain His idea of a citizen is severely limited, arguing that men are born to rule or be ruled He says that the same means are needed to make a good man as a good constitution And his insistence that the whole comes before the parts th Man is a political animal The perfect springboard for Aristotle s political tome The book is largely divided, though not perfectly sectioned off, into sections concerning his political philosophy and analysis His philosophy was a little difficult to ascertain His idea of a citizen is severely limited, arguing that men are born to rule or be ruled He says that the same means are needed to make a good man as a good constitution And his insistence that the whole comes before the parts the polis before the individual left me, as a modern reader, pretty skeptical He seems to think that the individual can only be fulfilled in a political setting The city is not organized to simply provide protection, but to enable the citizen again, the few who qualify to obtain the good life But then he thinks the good life , which is to be attained through participation in government, is one of leisure It seems to me that a life of leisure can only be built on the backs of those who are willing or made, in the case of slavery to provide such a life, meaning very few people could obtain this I didn t quite get how all of this is supposed to work But I have not readNicomachean Ethics yet, so my lack of understanding may lie somewhere between the two books.His political analysis of different forms of government, in their ideal and practical forms, was interesting reading mostly He had an intense knowledge of the constitutions of his day and their strengths and weaknesses He discusses how different conflicts within different classes leads to constitutional changes His comments in this section on changes from aristocracy to democracy truly made me think of the French Revolution, which made think he was mostly on target in these sections, but I am no political analyst Mostly, I just appreciated the groundwork he laid for the future conversations that lead to our constitution On his treatment of slavery I could not help but compare the differences between the Ancient Hebrew laws on slavery and Aristotle s comments As I hope others will understand the importance of not reading ancient texts like the Bible with modern sentiments, I tried to offer the same understanding to Aristotle But he really lost me here He constantly referred to slaves as irrational creatures There seemed to be something at work here, for he said perhaps some are wrongfully enslaved, but mostly he felt their plight was just and to their benefit Ancient Hebrew laws also were to the benefit of the slave , but in the interest of setting them free from debt, and ultimately, to be free to leave Ancient Hebrew law looked progressive compared to Aristotle s comments Aristotle made me laugh with this comment, No one in his youth resents being ruled HA I thought Aristotle had children, but Wikipedia must be mistakenTo sum up with a word to the wise he says, Not all democratic or Oligarchic measures are calculated to ensure the permanence of democracy or oligarchy The cardinal importance of educating citizens to live and act in the spirit of the constitution cannot be underestimated This is too often neglected, especially in extreme democracies which encourage the idea of living as one likes talks about state of nature and how to set state ,how to set laws and types of government and which type is the best also talks about human nature and how to make it good by education, proper upbringing and music may be it is long book , contains many names and many details which need specialist in political sciences or philosophy but u can get also usefulness from it by knowing types of governments, how to make human nature better also the main target is that book will make u think in e talks about state of nature and how to set state ,how to set laws and types of government and which type is the best also talks about human nature and how to make it good by education, proper upbringing and music may be it is long book , contains many names and many details which need specialist in political sciences or philosophy but u can get also usefulness from it by knowing types of governments, how to make human nature better also the main target is that book will make u think in every detail in your life Politics


About the Author: Aristotle

Greece Arabic Bulgarian Russian Alternate European spelling Aristoteles Aristotle 384 322 B.C numbers among the greatest philosophers of all time Judged solely in terms of his philosophical influence, only Plato is his peer Aristotle s works shaped centuries of philosophy from Late Antiquity through the Renaissance, and even today continue Greece Arabic Bulgarian Russian Alternate European spelling Aristoteles Aristotle 384 322 B.C numbers among the greatest philosophers of all time Judged solely in terms of his philosophical influence, only Plato is his peer Aristotle s works shaped centuries of philosophy from Late Antiquity through the Renaissance, and even today continue to be studied with keen, non antiquarian interest A prodigious researcher and writer, Aristotle left a great body of work, perhaps numbering as many as two hundred treatises, from which approximately thirty one survive His extant writings span a wide range of disciplines, from logic, metaphysics and philosophy of mind, through ethics, political theory, aesthetics and rhetoric, and into such primarily non philosophical fields as empirical biology, where he excelled at detailed plant and animal observation and taxonomy In all these areas, Aristotle s theories have provided illumination, met with resistance, sparked debate, and generally stimulated the sustained interest of an abiding readership.Because of its wide range and its remoteness in time, Aristotle s philosophy defies easy encapsulation The long history of interpretation and appropriation of Aristotelian texts and themes spanning over two millennia and comprising philosophers working within a variety of religious and secular traditions has rendered even basic points of interpretation controversial The set of entries on Aristotle in this site addresses this situation by proceeding in three tiers First, the present, general entry offers a brief account of Aristotle s life and characterizes his central philosophical commitments, highlighting his most distinctive methods and most influential achievements Second are General Topics which offer detailed introductions to the main areas of Aristotle s philosophical activity Finally, there follow Special Topics which investigate in greater detailnarrowly focused issues, especially those of central concern in recent Aristotelian scholarship


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