[ Read ] ➭ Perpetual Peace and Other Essays Author Immanuel Kant – Rvtrek.info

Perpetual Peace and Other Essays Incredible theory but they feel like elaborate sand castles brushed away by the first tide when applied to reality. Surprisingly fun read, as I ve never been able to get into Kant before Here, Immanuel wants to figure out how to create an ideal cosmopolitan world, where states are sovereign but mutually cooperative and the nation itself best facilitates the morality of its subjects For Kant, this means idealizing a republican state rather than a democratic one which he sees as enabling a kind of mob morality reign and ensuring that the distinction between the public and private usage of reason remains cle Surprisingly fun read, as I ve never been able to get into Kant before Here, Immanuel wants to figure out how to create an ideal cosmopolitan world, where states are sovereign but mutually cooperative and the nation itself best facilitates the morality of its subjects For Kant, this means idealizing a republican state rather than a democratic one which he sees as enabling a kind of mob morality reign and ensuring that the distinction between the public and private usage of reason remains clear and balanced public a subject in under the constraint of another, and so must use his reason skeptically, but ultimately within the bounds of his patron s conception of reason a clergyman would be an example private scholars and philosophers exemplify the private reasoners for Kant.Part of the reason this was so fun is because Kant just has a friggin weird imagination His essay on the Speculative Beginning of History, where he basically imagines the emergence of reason civilization by outlining the reality of genesis also his essay on The End of All Things, which is basically a meditation on the apocalypse complete with an understanding of the end of the world as spawned through the betrayal of Christian ideals by its practitioners these are just completely bizarre, albeit logical, and really fantastic reads, even if, like me, you are an atheist, and have little interest in faith, religion, or the afterlife Nevertheless, Kant s exploration of why we require the idea of an after to our sensuous world is truly fascinating, and I think holds even if you have no religious affiliation of belief It seems we cannot reach perfected reason or morality in this world Kant s notion of perpetual peace, as I understand it, lies only in the afterlife in the supersensuous world, which he believes to be unintelligible, as we cannot imagine our selves outside of time and space which would be his vision of the afterlife Yet only in that world can our reason come to fruition, and the sensuous world where we must nonetheless cultivate reason, though it is not the natural state of things Kant believes we are inclined toward aggression, and develop reason in order to harmonize with the other will hopefully near its own idealization through a unity of the perfected cosmopolitan state There are seeds in these essays of Kant s larger project centered on duty, but even without learning about Kant s general line of thought these essays are interesting reading Regarding Kant s overall project, the essay on theory being inherently practical is perhaps the most enlightening Theory dictates action, which then becomes practical even if the theory doesn t apply exactly or even closely For Kant, a theory that is not of use, or appears not to be of use, means that the theory needs t There are seeds in these essays of Kant s larger project centered on duty, but even without learning about Kant s general line of thought these essays are interesting reading Regarding Kant s overall project, the essay on theory being inherently practical is perhaps the most enlightening Theory dictates action, which then becomes practical even if the theory doesn t apply exactly or even closely For Kant, a theory that is not of use, or appears not to be of use, means that the theory needs to be clarified and refined, not that it is not practical All reason, for Kant, is practical.The essay on a universal history is clearly Christian, or religious, in nature that there is some end or purpose to which history is progressing, and that human history proves that progression is inevitable The essay is not all that persuasive, though Kant may not have intended to be.The speculation on the beginning of human history, while always fun to reflect upon, is perhaps the weakest attempt that I have read, from Feuerbach, Nietzsche, and others The headlining essay, Perpetual Peace, is solid and worthy of serious reflection There are a number of good ideas in there, like not incurring foreign debt, and a number that, in today s society, we d find na ve or even ignorant Unfortunately, much of Kant s hope for building a world where perpetual peace may be possible depends upon human nature s being better than it is For instance, one of his first principles is that standing armies should be gradually abolished And, later, almost predicting MLK s famous statement, Kant says that a transgression of rights in one place in the world is felt everywhere The problem here is that, to the latter, many will ask, But will anyone care , and to the former will wonder if any nation or people would be willing to abolish its standing army Yes, some have, but the biggest and largest countries have not.This problem of optimistically considering human nature is present throughout Kant s thinking, of course The very idea that humans follow and fulfill duty assumes that we are moral beings Even as a Christian, like Kant, I question whether this optimism is well placed man, regardless of the importance of material and ideas, this dude is.not a thrill to read. It is surprising how modern many of Kant s thoughts are I can t give it 5 stars, though, because he is so damn wordy The book and essays are not very long, but he could honestly shorten EVERYTHING here by at least 50% without losing anything Oh well It s whatever Worth checking out, I guess, but nothing world changing in the modern world, though it did appear to influence many later works and leaders. Four stars with a qualification It s Kant He assumes the structure, once built, will work by magic, which is both silly and untrue.However, the structure he builds in this essay is beautiful On the shoulders of this essay, the League of Nations was founded.Obviously, we are able to manipulate structures against their agreed purposes Perpetual Peace is only a declaration of what one might build His assurances that, once built, it will be inviolable, are hollow.Still, the declaration is a com Four stars with a qualification It s Kant He assumes the structure, once built, will work by magic, which is both silly and untrue.However, the structure he builds in this essay is beautiful On the shoulders of this essay, the League of Nations was founded.Obviously, we are able to manipulate structures against their agreed purposes Perpetual Peace is only a declaration of what one might build His assurances that, once built, it will be inviolable, are hollow.Still, the declaration is a compelling vision Shall we not declare our intention to put no authority above the cooperation of all free and sovereign states, to the sole end of guaranting those principles which we believe to be universally just If you are wary of such universal declarations, good Here, Kant is at his best And readable, too Did I forget to say that It s READABLE.Of course, all the arguments will run the wrong way It might drive you crazy My copy is covered in pencil scrawl It was worth the battle I read the Perpetual Peace essay not long after returning from Iraq as a Green Beret in the Army The notion of Perpetual Peace was befuddling, especially for me at that time since it challenged everything I had done in my life up to that point These are very interesting essays, and became part of my own line of thinking about war in the modern world, and a part of my own post war intellectual evolution that led me to pretty much despise war. I love his essay on Perpetual Peace everyone should read this essay it would make the world a better placeno kidding It s absolutely idealistic, but idealism is what this world needs it certainly was what I needed freshman year of college, when I first read the essay. This book is a seminal work by Kant A great read completely readable and rather modern with a globalist internationalist approach to philosophy It is very European in its good will and intriguingly cosmopolitan for its time The subject of this book is peace that should preferably be acquired through State and Republicanism He examines how war should be waged and how peace can be attained He also explains sovereignty and State forma imperii , and considers how pax perpetua can only be att This book is a seminal work by Kant A great read completely readable and rather modern with a globalist internationalist approach to philosophy It is very European in its good will and intriguingly cosmopolitan for its time The subject of this book is peace that should preferably be acquired through State and Republicanism He examines how war should be waged and how peace can be attained He also explains sovereignty and State forma imperii , and considers how pax perpetua can only be attained by democratic states it appears President George W Bush wasn t alone thinking about this eh He agrees with Hobbes that the original state is a state of war and that Nation States must be formed so that peace can be obtained Kant, in fact believes that States with prospect to form a federation of States, cannot but live in a circumstance of perpetual peace, present the appropriate democratic conditions, with rights of men being respected by all He would be interested on how this all turned out to be Perhaps there s something to this theory in relation to States But certainly not all turned out to be democracies And not all are in it to respect their neighbours I guess this idea which Kant espouses in this book is one we may never know in practice 4 stars TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Bibliography A Note On The Text Idea For A Universal History With A Cosmopolitan Intent An Answer To The Question What Is Enlightenment Speculative Beginning Of Human History On The Proverb That May Be True In Theory, But Is Of No Practical Use The End Of All Things To Perpetual Peace A Philosophical Sketch Glossary Of Some German English Translations Index


About the Author: Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant was an 18th century philosopher from K nigsberg, Prussia now Kaliningrad, Russia He s regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe of the late Enlightenment His most important work is The Critique of Pure Reason, an investigation of reason itself It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics epistemology, highlights his own contribution to these areas Other main works of his maturity are The Critique of Practical Reason, which is about ethics, The Critique of Judgment, about esthetics teleology.Pursuing metaphysics involves asking questions about the ultimate nature of reality Kant suggested that metaphysics can be reformed thru epistemology He suggested that by understanding the sources limits of human knowledge we can ask fruitful metaphysical questions He asked if an object can be known to have certain properties prior to the experience of that object He concluded that all objects that the mind can think about must conform to its manner of thought Therefore if the mind can think only in terms of causality which he concluded that it does then we can know prior to experiencing them that all objects we experience must either be a cause or an effect However, it follows from this that it s possible that there are objects of such a nature that the mind cannot think of them, so the principle of causality, for instance, cannot be applied outside experience hence we cannot know, for example, whether the world always existed or if it had a cause So the grand questions of speculative metaphysics are off limits, but the sciences are firmly grounded in laws of the mind Kant believed himself to be creating a compromise between the empiricists the rationalists The empiricists believed that knowledge is acquired thru experience alone, but the rationalists maintained that such knowledge is open to Cartesian doubt and that reason alone provides us with knowledge Kant argues, however, that using reason without applying it to experience will only lead to illusions, while experience will be purely subjective without first being subsumed under pure reason Kant s thought was very influential in Germany during his lifetime, moving philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists empiricists The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer saw themselves as correcting and expanding Kant s system, thus bringing about various forms of German Idealism Kant continues to be a major influence on philosophy to this day, influencing both Analytic and Continental philosophy.


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